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Section IV:
Industrial Production


4.1 Production Planning and Implementation
4.2 Packaging

Since the 1970s, impressive advances have been made in the mechanized production of a wide range of indigenous milk products. Their large-scale production involves intensive engineering inputs for designing the plant layout, selection of various equipment and manufacturing processes. This section deals with the critical engineering and technological aspects involved in planning the industrial production of commercially important traditional dairy products. Data is also provided to help evaluate the techno-economic feasibility of such a project.

With the growing consumer awareness towards health and nutrition, appropriate packaging and nutritional labelling have become important. This trend has been further accelerated by the changing dietary habits and lifestyle of the ever-increasing number of nuclear families. They are demanding convenient, easy-to-cook, ready-to-eat foodstuffs in appropriate packaging that retains freshness, flavour and taste, preserves nutrition and has a long shelf life. This is borne out by marked increase in expenditure on meals away from home as well as on packaged foods, purchased during regular grocery shopping.

Markets for traditional Indian milk products also exist overseas where the ethnic population of the Indian subcontinent has settled. However, to tap these markets, it is essential to conform to the international standards of food quality and safety. It calls for adopting the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), ISO Quality Management Systems, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), and food standards formulated by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. In step with this trend, the Government of India has made the pre-shipment inspection compulsory for export of dairy products. All these factors eventually lead to the ever-increasing emphasis on industrial production and packaging of indigenous milk products.




4.1 Production Planning and Implementation
  • Ten Steps to Project Implementation
  • Investment Opportunities — Project Planning; Financial Analysis; Project Cost Estimates; Product Yields
  • Plan for Product Manufacturing — Technological Aspects; Mass Balance Process Flow Diagrams; Engineering Aspects with Building Plan Layout and Equipment List; Liquid Milk Handling; Products
  • Development of Plant Layout — Production Block; Building Plan; Special Features; Hygiene Features; Factory Location; Brief Specifications of Key Equipment
  • Cleaning & Sanitization — Cleaning Cycle; CIP; Time & Temperature Schedule; Chemical Sanitizers



4.2 Packaging

  • Packaging Materials — Tin Containers, Aluminium Foil/Containers, Paper Carton Boards, Glass, Corrugated Board, Plastic Materials; Specifications
  • Packaging Techniques — Vacuum Packaging, Modified Atmosphere Packaging, Oxygen Absorbers/Scavengers, Poly Clip System, Aseptic Packaging, Computer-Aided Designing, Edible Packaging, Disposal of Packages, Recycling, Recommended Packaging and Storage
  • Packaging Machines — Tin Can Filling Machine, Seaming Machine, Form-Fill-Seal (FFS) Machine, Cup Thermo-Fill and Sealing Machine, Pre-formed Cup Filling and Sealing Machine, In-line Cup Filling, Sealing and Cartoning Machine, Multi-Fill Machine, Vacuum and Gas Machine, Shrink Wrapping Machine



Selected References

4.1 Production Planning and Implementation

  • Hall, H.S. and Rosen, H.B. Milk Plant Layout, FAO-Agriculture Studies, Bulletin No. 39, WHO/FAO, Rome, Italy.

4.2 Packaging

  • Balasubramanyan, N. and Dhar, S. (1999) Packaging and storage studies of ghee in flexible pouches. Indian J Dairy Sci., 52(2): 82-89.
  • Jana, A.H. And Upadhyay, K.G. (1998) Significant developments in the field of dairy products packaging. Packaging India, Indian Institute of Packaging, Mumbai.
  • Kumar, R., Bandopadhyay, P. and Punjrath, J.S. (1997) Shelf life extension of peda using different packaging techniques. Indian J. Dairy SCI, 50(1): 40-49.
  • Punjrath, J.S. (1995) Trends in packaging of milk and milk products. Indian Dairyman, 42(5) 29-40.



Selected Boxes

4.1 Production Planning and Implementation

  • Preparation of Project Report
  • Product Development
  • BIS Standards
  • Progress in Milk Processing
  • Food Laws in India
  • Approaches to Equipment Development
  • BIS Guidelines
  • Verification of Cleaning Effect


4.2 Packaging

  • Indian Standards for Packaging of Milk & Milk Products
  • Bar Coding
  • Aseptic Process: Packaging for a Healthy Lifestyle

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 Guide to  Modernization
"'Technology of Indian Milk Products' serves as a guide to help modernize the traditional dairy sector".
- Indian Council of Agricultural Research
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