Section IV: Industrial
Planning and Implementation
Since the 1970s, impressive advances have been
made in the mechanized production of a wide range of indigenous milk
products. Their large-scale production involves intensive engineering
inputs for designing the plant layout, selection of various equipment
and manufacturing processes. This section deals with the critical
engineering and technological aspects involved in planning the industrial
production of commercially important traditional dairy products. Data
is also provided to help evaluate the techno-economic feasibility
of such a project.
With the growing consumer awareness towards health and nutrition,
appropriate packaging and nutritional labelling have become important.
This trend has been further accelerated by the changing dietary habits
and lifestyle of the ever-increasing number of nuclear families. They
are demanding convenient, easy-to-cook, ready-to-eat foodstuffs in
appropriate packaging that retains freshness, flavour and taste, preserves
nutrition and has a long shelf life. This is borne out by marked increase
in expenditure on meals away from home as well as on packaged foods,
purchased during regular grocery shopping.
Markets for traditional Indian milk products also exist overseas where
the ethnic population of the Indian subcontinent has settled. However,
to tap these markets, it is essential to conform to the international
standards of food quality and safety. It calls for adopting the Good
Manufacturing Practices (GMP), ISO Quality Management Systems, Hazard
Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), and food standards formulated
by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. In step with this trend,
the Government of India has made the pre-shipment inspection compulsory
for export of dairy products. All these factors eventually lead to
the ever-increasing emphasis on industrial production and packaging
of indigenous milk products.
4.1 Production Planning
- Ten Steps to Project Implementation
- Investment Opportunities Project Planning;
Financial Analysis; Project Cost Estimates; Product Yields
- Plan for Product Manufacturing Technological
Aspects; Mass Balance Process Flow Diagrams; Engineering Aspects
with Building Plan Layout and Equipment List; Liquid Milk Handling;
- Development of Plant Layout Production
Block; Building Plan; Special Features; Hygiene Features; Factory
Location; Brief Specifications of Key Equipment
- Cleaning & Sanitization Cleaning
Cycle; CIP; Time & Temperature Schedule; Chemical Sanitizers
- Packaging Materials Tin Containers,
Aluminium Foil/Containers, Paper Carton Boards, Glass, Corrugated
Board, Plastic Materials; Specifications
- Packaging Techniques Vacuum Packaging,
Modified Atmosphere Packaging, Oxygen Absorbers/Scavengers, Poly
Clip System, Aseptic Packaging, Computer-Aided Designing, Edible
Packaging, Disposal of Packages, Recycling, Recommended Packaging
- Packaging Machines Tin Can Filling Machine,
Seaming Machine, Form-Fill-Seal (FFS) Machine, Cup Thermo-Fill
and Sealing Machine, Pre-formed Cup Filling and Sealing Machine,
In-line Cup Filling, Sealing and Cartoning Machine, Multi-Fill
Machine, Vacuum and Gas Machine, Shrink Wrapping Machine
4.1 Production Planning and Implementation
- Hall, H.S. and Rosen, H.B. Milk Plant Layout,
FAO-Agriculture Studies, Bulletin No. 39, WHO/FAO, Rome, Italy.
- Balasubramanyan, N. and Dhar, S. (1999) Packaging
and storage studies of ghee in flexible pouches. Indian J Dairy
Sci., 52(2): 82-89.
- Jana, A.H. And Upadhyay, K.G. (1998) Significant
developments in the field of dairy products packaging. Packaging
India, Indian Institute of Packaging, Mumbai.
- Kumar, R., Bandopadhyay, P. and Punjrath, J.S.
(1997) Shelf life extension of peda using different packaging
techniques. Indian J. Dairy SCI, 50(1): 40-49.
- Punjrath, J.S. (1995) Trends in packaging
of milk and milk products. Indian Dairyman, 42(5) 29-40.
4.1 Production Planning and Implementation
- Preparation of Project Report
- Product Development
- BIS Standards
- Progress in Milk Processing
- Food Laws in India
- Approaches to Equipment Development
- BIS Guidelines
- Verification of Cleaning Effect
- Indian Standards for Packaging of Milk &
- Bar Coding
- Aseptic Process: Packaging for a Healthy
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|"'Technology of Indian
Milk Products' serves as a guide to help modernize the traditional
- Indian Council of Agricultural Research