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Section II:
Principles of Processing

2.1 Milk: Its Composition and Processing Characteristics
2.2
Hygienic Handling of Raw Milk: Recommended Practices
2.3
Ingredients for Milk Products

Basic aspects of processing of raw milk crucial to product development are discussed in this section. The compositional and physicochemical characteristics of cow and buffalo milk are presented. Various technologies for the hygienic production of milk, its collection, transport and processing are described to help meet quality, safety and shelf life-related requirements of end-products. Information on ingredients used in indigenous milk products and their role in quality upgradation are also detailed in a separate subsection. All these aspects are fundamental to modernization of the traditional dairy products sector.



2.1 Milk: Its Composition and Processing Characteristics
  • Definition of Milk
  • Composition of Milk
  • Constituents of Milk — Major Constituents: Fat, Proteins, Lactose, Minerals
    Minor Constituents: Vitamins, Enzymes, Lactoperoxidase, Pigments
  • Physical Properties of Milk — Appearance, Flavour, Acidity & pH, Oxidation-reduction Potential, Thermal Expansion, Density & Specific Gravity, Viscosity, Surface Tension, Curd Tension, Foaming, Freezing Point, Boiling Point, Specific Heat, Thermal Conductivity, Electrical Conductivity, Refractive Index, Osmotic Pressure, Salt Balance, Heat Stability.


2.2 Hygienic Handling of Raw Milk: Recommended Practices

  • Microflora of Raw Milk
  • Clean Milk Production
  • Raw Milk Cooling
  • Rural Milk Procurement
  • Grading of Milk
  • Milk Processing — Filtration/Clarification, Separation, Standardization, Recombination, Homogenization, Thermal Processing, UHT Processing, Membrane Technologies, Microwave Processing, Irradiation


2.3 Ingredients for Milk Products

  • Sweeteners — Gur (Jaggery), Khandsari, Bura, Chini
  • Grains — Chawal (Rice), Maida, Suji, Rava (Wheat Flour)
  • Nuts & Seeds — Badam, Kaju, Copra, Pista, Khaskhas, Akhrot, Kishmish
  • Flavourings & Colourings — Chhoti Elaichi (Cardamom), Gulab Jal (Rose Essence), Kesar (Saffron), Cocoa
  • Miscellaneous — Makhana (Gorgon Fruit), Sabudana (Sago)
  • Water


Selected References

2.1 Milk: Its Composition and Processing Characteristics

  • Gokhale, A.J., Upadhyay, K.G. and Pandya, A.J. (2001) Fat rich dairy products from buffalo milk. Indian Dairyman, 53(3): 17-25.
  • Pruthi, T.D. and Bindal, M.P. (1996) Effect of exotic inheritance on cholesterol content and fatty acid make up of cow milk. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 49(8): 481-488.
  • Sindhu, J.S. (1996) Suitability of buffalo milk for products manufacturing. Indian Dairyman, 48(2): 41-47.


2.3 Ingredients for Milk Products

  • Hankin, N. (1997) Hanklyn-Janklin: A stranger's rumble-tumble guide to some words, customs and quiddities, Indian and Indo-British. Banyan Books, New Delhi. pp. 278.
  • IS:1679-1960 Indian Standards Specification for sugar used in food preservation industry. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  • IS:499-1958 Indian Standards Methods of test for vacuum pan sugar. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  • IS:1010-1968. 1st Revision. Indian Standards specifications for suji or rava (Semolina). Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  • IS:10902-1984. Indian Standards specifications for paushtik wheat maida. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  • Woodroof, J.G. (1982) Tree nuts: Production, processing, products. 2nd Ed. AVI Publishing Company Inc, Westport, Connecticut, USA. pp. 572-603.
  • Gowda, D.I.N. (1998) Advances in the improvement of raisin quality. Indian Food Indus., 17(4): 218-223
  • IS:5453(Part 1)-1996. 2nd Revision. Indian Standards specifications of saffron. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  • IS: 11924-1992 1st Revision. Indian standards speciications for cocoa coatings. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  • IS:899-1971. 1st Revision. Indian Standards specifications for tapioca sago (Sabudana). Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  • S:4251-1967 (Reaffirmed 1977) Indian standards quality tolerances for water for processed food industry. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.


Selected Boxes

2.1 Milk: Its Composition & Processing Characteristics

  • Terms Related to Milk Structure
  • Four Faces of Milk

2.2 Hygienic Handling of Raw Milk

  • Parameters of Raw Milk Quality
  • Importance of Milk Chilling
  • Upgrading Raw Milk Quality
  • Clean Milk Production: Initiatives & Incentives
  • Routine Tests
  • Definitions


2.3 Ingredients of Milk Products

  • Cultivation & Processing of Sugarcane
  • Forms of Sugar in India
  • Rice: Seven Notable Features
  • Cooking & Storage of Rice
  • Milling & Storage of Wheat
  • Almond: Processing & Nutritive Value

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