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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to Economists and Statisticians.

Section 1.2 - Market Survey and Analysis

Table 1.2.2 Share of milk and milk products in average monthly per capita food expenditure (Pg 24)

Region Average monthly per capita expenditure

Northern States
Western States
Southern States
Eastern States


Source: NSS Consumer Expenditure Survey, 50th Round (July 1993-June 1994).

Section 1.1 - Modernization Opens Global Markets

Table 1.1.5 Volume and value of market for traditional milk products, 2001 (Pg 8)

(million tonnes)
(Rs '000/tonne)
(Rs billion)

Khoa-based sweets
Chhana-based sweets
Curd & curd products
578 ($11.5 billion)

Section 5.2 - Management Systems for Quality and Food Safety

Guidelines for Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
(Pg 325)
  • Employees working in a food plant are required to wash their hands with a sanitizing soap prior to beginning or returning to handling of food.
  • Loose hair poses serious sanitation problems in the plant. Therefore, all persons working or visiting the production area must wear authorized head covering to avoid contact of loose hair with food product.
  • Sanitary precautions are required to be taken by employees when sneezing or coughing. An employee with infectious skin eruption, communicable disease or other infected conditions must have plant management clearance before allowed to handle food.
  • Employees in production areas should wear clean uniforms. The uniforms should be changed daily or sooner if soiled for any reason. Shirts are required to be buttoned and tucked into trousers.
  • Workers in the production area will not wear rings, and neck/ear jewellery. This practice will preclude mix-up of the foreign materials in food. Watches, pens, pencils and loose materials should be removed prior to entry to production areas.
  • Smoking, spitting or chewing of tobacco is prohibited in the production as well as storage areas.
  • Consumption of beverage or food is allowed exclusively in the designated area.
  • Nail polish and/or perfume is not allowed in production or storage areas.
  • Containers and equipment made of glass, including glass thermometers, should not be permitted in the production area.
  • Good housekeeping in the production area is necessary for work efficiency and workers' safety.

Section 5.3 - Export Potential in the Global Context

US Food & Drug Administration Regulations (Pg 338)

Production of Grade A dairy products is regulated by the Milk Safety Branch of the FDA. Regulations related to Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) are enforced by the State.The PMO requirements for product and package include the following:
  • Must contain the word Grade A.
  • Must contain the identity of the plant.
  • Product standards of identity must be met.
  • Temperature—cooled to 45°F (7°C) or less and maintained there.
  • Bacterial limits specified in the PMO.
  • Coliforms—not to exceed 10/ml.
  • Phosphatase test <1 mg/ml.
  • Antibiotics—no zone greater than or equal to 16 mm with the Bacillus sterothermophilus disc assay method.

Analytical Tests (Pg 341-342)

Quality tests for milk and dairy products include analysis of chemical composition, physical attributes, microbiological quality and sensory characteristics. Analytical tests for milk composition are conducted to determine the content of fat, total solids, protein, lactose, ash, vitamins and minerals. Basic quality of milk is assessed by tests such as titratable acidity, added water, foreign materials, antibiotics, sanitizers, aflatoxins, pesticides and other environmental contaminants. Abnormal milk tests include Wisconsin and California somatic cell counts for mastitis.

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 Project Design
The handbook places a lot of emphasis on project design, equipment specifications and plant layouts for the design of projects for the industrial manufacture of these products and
consumption market data to cater to local preferences.
- Barry Wilson, Dairy Industry Newsletter, UK
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