The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to Exporters of Indian Milk Products.
Section 5.2 - Management
Systems for Quality and Food Safety
Guidelines for Good Manufacturing
Practices (GMP) (Pg 325)
- Employees working in a food plant are required
to wash their hands with a sanitizing soap prior to beginning
or returning to handling of food.
- Loose hair poses serious sanitation problems
in the plant. Therefore, all persons working or visiting the production
area must wear authorized head covering to avoid contact of loose
hair with food product.
- Sanitary precautions are required to be taken
by employees when sneezing or coughing. An employee with infectious
skin eruption, communicable disease or other infected conditions
must have plant management clearance before allowed to handle
- Employees in production areas should wear clean
uniforms. The uniforms should be changed daily or sooner if soiled
for any reason. Shirts are required to be buttoned and tucked
- Workers in the production area will not wear
rings, and neck/ear jewellery. This practice will preclude mix-up
of the foreign materials in food. Watches, pens, pencils and loose
materials should be removed prior to entry to production areas.
- Smoking, spitting or chewing of tobacco is
prohibited in the production as well as storage areas.
- Consumption of beverage or food is allowed
exclusively in the designated area.
- Nail polish and/or perfume is not allowed in
production or storage areas.
- Containers and equipment made of glass, including
glass thermometers, should not be permitted in the production
- Good housekeeping in the production area
is necessary for work efficiency and workers' safety.
Section 5.3 - Export Potential in the Global
Export Potential in the Global Context (Pg 338)
The Indian dairy industry needs to take the following steps which
are critical for its image as a quality-conscious productive enterprise:
- Improved efficiency in milk procurement system
is required to ensure superior physicochemical and microbiological
quality of products;
- Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) should be
adopted for plant design, process control and hygienic processing
- Production of dairy products should be mechanized,
and modern packaging systems used to conform to the international
- The labelling and quality assurance programmes
should be in conformity with the international standards.
US Food & Drug Administration Regulations (Pg 338)
Production of Grade A dairy products is regulated by the Milk Safety
Branch of the FDA. Regulations related to Grade A Pasteurized
Milk Ordinance (PMO) are enforced by the State. The PMO requirements
for product and package include the following:
- Must contain the word Grade A.
- Must contain the identity of the plant.
- Product standards of identity must be met.
- Temperaturecooled to 45°F (7°C)
or less and maintained there.
- Bacterial limits specified in the PMO.
- Coliformsnot to exceed 10/ml.
- Phosphatase test <1 mg/ml.
- Antibioticsno zone greater than or equal
to 16 mm with the Bacillus sterothermophilus disc assay
Standard of Identity (Pg 338)
All dairy products with standard of identity definition must conform
to FDA standards, published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).
Food Labelling (Pg 340)
The label must declare the amounts per serving for calories, calories
from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates,
sugars, dietary fibre, and protein. Also, percentage Daily Reference
Values (DRV) must be shown to a 2,000-calorie and 2,500-cal/day
diets for the above nutrients as well as for vitamins A and C, and
calcium and iron to make the label consumer-friendly and useful.
Table 5.3.4 Product definition in terms of its fat content (Pg
||<0.5 g fat/serving
||<5 mg sodium/serving
||<2 mg cholesterol and 2 g saturated fat/serving
||<3 g fat/serving
|Low saturated fat
||<1 g of saturated fat/serving
||40 calories or less/serving
||<20 mg cholesterol and no more than 2 g saturated
||Reduction of at least 25% less of a nutrient or
calories. For cholesterol, additional requirement is maximum
of 2 g of saturated fat.
||>=25% reduction in calories or nutrient/serving
||>=10 % more of nutrient/serving
||1/3 fewer calories/50% less fat than
a representative value for the category, provided the product
is not already low in fat. If 50% calories come from fat, fat
must be reduced by 50%
|% Fat Free
||Must be low fat or fat-free. If a food contains
2 g fat / 50 g, it is 96% fat free
Analytical Tests (Pg 341-342)
Quality tests for milk and dairy products include analysis of chemical
composition, physical attributes, microbiological quality and sensory
characteristics. Analytical tests for milk composition are conducted
to determine the content of fat, total solids, protein, lactose, ash,
vitamins and minerals. Basic quality of milk is assessed by tests
such as titratable acidity, added water, foreign materials, antibiotics,
sanitizers, aflatoxins, pesticides and other environmental contaminants.
Abnormal milk tests include Wisconsin and California somatic cell
counts for mastitis.
Order the handbook. Have queries?
systems for product quality and food safety such as ISO and
HACCP have been dealt with at length. These aspects are becoming
increasingly important to win consumer confidence in domestic
and export market".
- Indian Food Industry, Mysore