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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to Exporters of Indian Milk Products.

Section 5.2 - Management Systems for Quality and Food Safety

Guidelines for Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
(Pg 325)
  • Employees working in a food plant are required to wash their hands with a sanitizing soap prior to beginning or returning to handling of food.
  • Loose hair poses serious sanitation problems in the plant. Therefore, all persons working or visiting the production area must wear authorized head covering to avoid contact of loose hair with food product.
  • Sanitary precautions are required to be taken by employees when sneezing or coughing. An employee with infectious skin eruption, communicable disease or other infected conditions must have plant management clearance before allowed to handle food.
  • Employees in production areas should wear clean uniforms. The uniforms should be changed daily or sooner if soiled for any reason. Shirts are required to be buttoned and tucked into trousers.
  • Workers in the production area will not wear rings, and neck/ear jewellery. This practice will preclude mix-up of the foreign materials in food. Watches, pens, pencils and loose materials should be removed prior to entry to production areas.
  • Smoking, spitting or chewing of tobacco is prohibited in the production as well as storage areas.
  • Consumption of beverage or food is allowed exclusively in the designated area.
  • Nail polish and/or perfume is not allowed in production or storage areas.
  • Containers and equipment made of glass, including glass thermometers, should not be permitted in the production area.
  • Good housekeeping in the production area is necessary for work efficiency and workers' safety.

Section 5.3 - Export Potential in the Global Context

Export Potential in the Global Context (Pg 338)

The Indian dairy industry needs to take the following steps which are critical for its image as a quality-conscious productive enterprise:

  • Improved efficiency in milk procurement system is required to ensure superior physicochemical and microbiological quality of products;
  • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) should be adopted for plant design, process control and hygienic processing of milk;
  • Production of dairy products should be mechanized, and modern packaging systems used to conform to the international standards; and
  • The labelling and quality assurance programmes should be in conformity with the international standards.

US Food & Drug Administration Regulations
(Pg 338)

Production of Grade A dairy products is regulated by the Milk Safety Branch of the FDA. Regulations related to Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) are enforced by the State. The PMO requirements for product and package include the following:
  • Must contain the word Grade A.
  • Must contain the identity of the plant.
  • Product standards of identity must be met.
  • Temperature—cooled to 45°F (7°C) or less and maintained there.
  • Bacterial limits specified in the PMO.
  • Coliforms—not to exceed 10/ml.
  • Phosphatase test <1 mg/ml.
  • Antibiotics—no zone greater than or equal to 16 mm with the Bacillus sterothermophilus disc assay method.

Standard of Identity (Pg 338)

All dairy products with standard of identity definition must conform to FDA standards, published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

Food Labelling (Pg 340)

The label must declare the amounts per serving for calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, sugars, dietary fibre, and protein. Also, percentage Daily Reference Values (DRV) must be shown to a 2,000-calorie and 2,500-cal/day diets for the above nutrients as well as for vitamins A and C, and calcium and iron to make the label consumer-friendly and useful.

Table 5.3.4
Product definition in terms of its fat content (Pg 341)


Fat free <0.5 g fat/serving
Calorie free <5 calories/serving
Sodium free <5 mg sodium/serving
Cholesterol free <2 mg cholesterol and 2 g saturated fat/serving
Low fat <3 g fat/serving
Low saturated fat <1 g of saturated fat/serving
Low calorie 40 calories or less/serving
Low sodium <140 mg/serving
Low cholesterol <20 mg cholesterol and no more than 2 g saturated fat/serving
Good source 10-14% DV/serving
High >=20% DV/serving
Reduced Reduction of at least 25% less of a nutrient or calories. For cholesterol, additional requirement is maximum of 2 g of saturated fat.
Less/Fewer >=25% reduction in calories or nutrient/serving
More >=10 % more of nutrient/serving
Light/Lite 1/3 fewer calories/50% less fat than a representative value for the category, provided the product is not already low in fat. If 50% calories come from fat, fat must be reduced by 50%
% Fat Free Must be low fat or fat-free. If a food contains 2 g fat / 50 g, it is 96% fat free

Analytical Tests (Pg 341-342)

Quality tests for milk and dairy products include analysis of chemical composition, physical attributes, microbiological quality and sensory characteristics. Analytical tests for milk composition are conducted to determine the content of fat, total solids, protein, lactose, ash, vitamins and minerals. Basic quality of milk is assessed by tests such as titratable acidity, added water, foreign materials, antibiotics, sanitizers, aflatoxins, pesticides and other environmental contaminants. Abnormal milk tests include Wisconsin and California somatic cell counts for mastitis.

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 Management  Systems
"Different management systems for product quality and food safety such as ISO and HACCP have been dealt with at length. These aspects are becoming increasingly important to win consumer confidence in domestic and export market".
- Indian Food Industry, Mysore
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