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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to Chemical Engineers & Food Technologists.

Section 4.1 - Production Planning and Implementation


Food Laws in India (Pg 267)

As many as ten different ministries and departments govern and administer the dairy sector in India. Food laws that affect the dairy sector are described below:

A. Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA), 1954 and Rules: The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is the nodal agency for ensuring the quality and safety of food marketed in the country through this legislation. The provisions of the Act are mandatory, and their contravention can lead to both fine and imprisonment.

B. Essential Commodities Act, 1955: The main objective of the Act... is to regulate the manufacture, commerce, and distribution of essential commodities, including food. A number of Control Orders have been promulgated under the provisions of this Act. These are:
(a) Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1976 and the Standards of Weights and Measures (Packaged Commodities) Rules, 1977: The Act... governs sale of packaged commodities and provides for mandatory registration of all packaged products in the country.
(b) Consumer Protection Act, 1986: The Act... provides for constitution of District Forum/State/National Commission for settlement of disputes between the seller/service provider and the consumer.
(c) The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 1992 and Rules 1993: This Act... aims at promoting breast feeding and ensuring proper use of infant milk substitutes and infant food.
(d) The Insecticide Act, 1968: The Act... envisages safe use of insecticides so as to ensure that the leftover chemical residue do not pose any health hazard.
(e) Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act, 1963: The Act... aims at facilitating export trade through quality control and inspection before the products are sold to international buyers.
(f) Milk and Milk Products Order (MMPO) 1992: Under this order, registration is mandatory for all dairies handling more than 10,000 litres of milk per day or milk products containing milk solids exceeding 500 tonnes per year.
(g) Environment Protection Act, 1986: This Act... incorporates rules for the manufacture, use, import and storage of hazardous micro-organisms / substances / cells used as foodstuff.
(h) Pollution Control (Ministry of Environment and Forests): A no-objection certificate from the respective State Pollution Control Board is essential for all dairy plants.
(i) Industrial Licences: No licence is required for setting up a dairy plant in India. Only a memorandum has to be submitted to the Secretariat for Industrial Approvals (SIA) and an acknowledgement obtained. However, a certificate of registration is required under the Milk and Milk Products Order (MMPO), 1992.

Voluntary Standards: Primarily, two organizations deal with voluntary standardization and certification systems in the food sector. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) looks after standardization of processed foods and related products. In case of raw agricultural produce, the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI) regulates grade standards.


Table 4.1.9 Summary of project cost estimates
(Pg 227)
Rs million  

Item
Estimated cost
 
New plant
Extended plant

Civil Cost

   
(a) Independent plant with milk reception processing and service section, including cost of land
13.0
(b) If it is an extension of existing dairy, excluding cost of land
9.0
Plant and Equipment
   
(a) Independent plant
20.4
(b) If it is an extension of existing dairy without homogenizer
16.66
Packaging Machine    
(a) Local cup filling machine
2.8
(b) Imported packaged machine
15.0
(c) Imported reconditioned machine
9.0
(d) Imported form fill and sealing (FFS) machine
36.0
Utility Service Section
   
(a) Independent plant
8.0
(b) Extension of a plant
6.5
Miscellaneous items
2.4
2.4
Village milk procurement system
0.6
0.6
Central excise duty, sales tax, transport, insurance, etc
2.0
1.5
Total    
(a) Independent plant with imported FFS machine
82.0
 
(b) Independent plant with imported packaging machine
61.0
 
(c) Independent plant with reconditioned machine
55.0
 
(d) Independent plant with local cup filling machine
48.8
 
(e) Extension of existing dairy without homogenizer and imported reconditioned packaging machine
45.5
(f) Extension of plant with local machine
39.8
 



Section 5.2 - Management Systems for Quality and Food Safety

ISO 9000 Quality Management Systems
(Pg 327)

The ISO 9000 system is looked at as a system with minimum quality requirements. It builds a baseline system for managing quality. The focus, therefore, is on designing a total quality management system, one that complies with external standards, but includes the specific requirement of industry and integrates elements of competitiveness. The requirements of ISO 9000 for laying the foundation for excellence and total quality management system are given in Figure 5.2.3.



Figure 5.2.3 A foundation for excellence

The millennium standard (ISO 9000:2000) has changed the focus from procedure to process. The main features of the ISO 9000:2000 standards are:
  • Refinement in the presentation to make reading easy and elimination of general inauditable statements such as "consideration shall be given…".
  • The present standard gave an impression that it was applicable to manufacturing situation though it was applied in organizations of different types and sizes, including the service sector. The new standard... is a broad-based standard applicable to all sectors.
  • In the new standards approach has changed from continuous improvement to continual improvement. Continuous improvement remained an implied approach to quality improvement in ISO 9000.
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 Project Design Innovations
The handbook places a lot of emphasis on project design, equipment specifications and plant layouts for the design of projects for the industrial manufacture of these ethnic dairy products and consumption market data to cater to local preferences.
- Barry Wilson, Dairy Industry Newsletter, UK
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