The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk
Products would be of interest to Foreign Trade Specialists.
Section 5.3 - Export Potential in the Global Context
Certification Scheme for Dairy Products Export (Pg 344-345)
The main systems of inspection and certification that EIC follows
include consignment-wise inspection (CWI), in-process quality control
(IPQC), self-certification (SC), and food safety management systems-based
certification (FSMSC). In the food sector, EIC has introduced FSMSC,
aligned with international standards on HACCP/GMP/GHP. For dairy products,
the certification system involves approval of milk processing units,
followed by periodic surveillance by the five Export Inspection Agencies
(EIAs) at Delhi, Kolkata, Kochi, Chennai and Mumbai, supported with
a network of 42 sub-offices and laboratories.
Some requirements which a processing unit needs to comply with before
exporting milk products are listed below:
- Any statutory restriction imposed by
any State/Central Government with respect to commercial/environmental/conservation
measures from time to time;
- Milk products should have been manufactured
from milk of apparently healthy dairy animals.
- The milk products should contain only the permissible
foo additives/processing inputs/ingredients that are fit for human
- Milk products should have been treated and
prepared in an approved plant;
- Processing and/or manufacturing should have
been carried out under hygienic conditions;
- The following conditions should have been observed
during product packing:
(a) Wrapping and packaging should be done under satisfactory hygienic
conditions in rooms provided for that purpose;
(b) Bottling, filling of containers with liquid milk products,
and sealing of containers and packaging should be carried out
by automatic machines;
(c) Wrapping or packaging may not be reused for products with
the exception of certain types of containers, which may be reused
after thorough cleaning and disinfecting.
- The pasteurized milk should not be kept at
a temperature exceeding 6°C.
When stored under cooled conditions, the storage temperatures
should be registered; and the cooling rate should be such that
the product reaches the required temperature as quickly as possible;
- The period for which the milk products are
fit for human consumption and storage shall be indicated by the
- Results of various checks and tests shall be
recorded and kept for a period of two years for presentation to
the competent authority.
- Residues of substances having a pharmacological
or hormonal action, and of antibiotics, pesticides, detergents
and other substances should not be present in milk at levels which
might alter the sensory characteristics of milk products or make
their consumption dangerous or harmful to human health;
- If the milk products examined show traces of
residues in excess of the permitted levels, they must not be allowed
either for the manufacture of foodstuffs or for direct human consumption;
- Tests for residues must be carried out
in accordance with nationally / internationally recognised methods.
Table 5.3.5 Typical dairy plant quality tests and their purpose
- Direct microscopic count
- Sensory (odour, flavour)
- Titratable acidity
- Microbiological quality
- General quality
- Freshness, handling practice
|Fruits, nuts, syrups, sweeteners
- Yeasts and moulds
- Osmophilic yeasts
- Microbial contamination
- Shelf life of the product
- Safety/shelf life of the product.
|Fresh milk and other dairy products
- Escherichia coli or
- Enterobacter aerogenes
- Detecting unsanitary processing or packaging conditions
- Indicator of post-pasteurization
|Milk and other fresh dairy products
- Pre-incubate product in its container at 21°C/18
hours,followed by tests like
Standard Plate Count,
Crystal Violet Tetrazolium,
Gram Negative Agar (Plate count agar containing added
- Pre-incubate milk at 7°C for 5-7 days followed by
Standard Plate Count test
- Estimation of keeping quality
|Inline sampling and plant
|HTST/filler or packaging machine/glycol
or ice water and equipment surfaces
- Pre-incubation followed by Standard Plate Count and Coliform
- Contamination with psychrotrophic organisms and general
|Environmental air and water samples
- Standard Plate Count and Coliform Count tests
- General santitation
Food Labelling (Pg 340)
The label must declare the amounts per serving for calories, calories
from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates,
sugars, dietary fibre, and protein. Also, percentage Daily Reference
Values (DRV) must be shown to a 2,000-calorie and 2,500-cal/day
diets for the above nutrients as well as for vitamins A and C, and
calcium and iron to make the label consumer-friendly and useful.
Table 5.3.4 Product
definition in terms of its fat content (Pg 341)
||<0.5 g fat/serving
||<5 mg sodium/serving
||<2 mg cholesterol and 2 g saturated fat/serving
||<3 g fat/serving
|Low saturated fat
||<1 g of saturated fat/serving
||40 calories or less/serving
||<20 mg cholesterol and no more than 2 g saturated
||Reduction of at least 25% less of a nutrient or
calories. For cholesterol, additional requirement is maximum
of 2 g of saturated fat.
||>=25% reduction in calories or nutrient/serving
||>=10 % more of nutrient/serving
||1/3 fewer calories/50% less fat than
a representative value for the category, provided the product
is not already low in fat. If 50% calories come from fat, fat
must be reduced by 50%
|% Fat Free
||Must be low fat or fat-free. If a food contains
2 g fat / 50 g, it is 96% fat free
Section 5.2 - Management
Systems for Quality and Food Safety
Guidelines for Good Manufacturing
Practices (GMP) (Pg 325)
- Employees working in a food plant are required
to wash their hands with a sanitizing soap prior to beginning
or returning to handling of food.
- Loose hair poses serious sanitation problems
in the plant. Therefore, all persons working or visiting the production
area must wear authorized head covering to avoid contact of loose
hair with food product.
- Sanitary precautions are required to be taken
by employees when sneezing or coughing. An employee with infectious
skin eruption, communicable disease or other infected conditions
must have plant management clearance before allowed to handle
- Employees in production areas should wear clean
uniforms. The uniforms should be changed daily or sooner if soiled
for any reason. Shirts are required to be buttoned and tucked
- Workers in the production area will not wear
rings, and neck/ear jewellery. This practice will preclude mix-up
of the foreign materials in food. Watches, pens, pencils and loose
materials should be removed prior to entry to production areas.
- Smoking, spitting or chewing of tobacco is
prohibited in the production as well as storage areas.
- Consumption of beverage or food is allowed
exclusively in the designated area.
- Nail polish and/or perfume is not allowed in
production or storage areas.
- Containers and equipment made of glass, including
glass thermometers, should not be permitted in the production
- Good housekeeping in the production area
is necessary for work efficiency and workers' safety.
Figure 5.2.4 Quality
management process model (Pg 329)
Order the handbook.
Have queries? Contact
for Value Addition
|"A group of very
able authors have brought in newer concepts for products, packaging
and export to outreach the Indian products to global market.
We should now go further up in the value addition to milk".
- Dr V Prakash, Director,
Central Food Technology Research Institute