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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to Foreign Trade Specialists.

Section 5.3 - Export Potential in the Global Context

Certification Scheme for Dairy Products Export (Pg 344-345)

The main systems of inspection and certification that EIC follows include consignment-wise inspection (CWI), in-process quality control (IPQC), self-certification (SC), and food safety management systems-based certification (FSMSC). In the food sector, EIC has introduced FSMSC, aligned with international standards on HACCP/GMP/GHP. For dairy products, the certification system involves approval of milk processing units, followed by periodic surveillance by the five Export Inspection Agencies (EIAs) at Delhi, Kolkata, Kochi, Chennai and Mumbai, supported with a network of 42 sub-offices and laboratories.

Some requirements which a processing unit needs to comply with before exporting milk products are listed below:
  • Any statutory restriction imposed by any State/Central Government with respect to commercial/environmental/conservation measures from time to time;
  • Milk products should have been manufactured from milk of apparently healthy dairy animals.
  • The milk products should contain only the permissible foo additives/processing inputs/ingredients that are fit for human consumption;
  • Milk products should have been treated and prepared in an approved plant;
  • Processing and/or manufacturing should have been carried out under hygienic conditions;
  • The following conditions should have been observed during product packing:
    (a) Wrapping and packaging should be done under satisfactory hygienic conditions in rooms provided for that purpose;
    (b) Bottling, filling of containers with liquid milk products, and sealing of containers and packaging should be carried out by automatic machines;
    (c) Wrapping or packaging may not be reused for products with the exception of certain types of containers, which may be reused after thorough cleaning and disinfecting.
  • The pasteurized milk should not be kept at a temperature exceeding 6°C.
    When stored under cooled conditions, the storage temperatures should be registered; and the cooling rate should be such that the product reaches the required temperature as quickly as possible;
  • The period for which the milk products are fit for human consumption and storage shall be indicated by the processor;
  • Results of various checks and tests shall be recorded and kept for a period of two years for presentation to the competent authority.
  • Residues of substances having a pharmacological or hormonal action, and of antibiotics, pesticides, detergents and other substances should not be present in milk at levels which might alter the sensory characteristics of milk products or make their consumption dangerous or harmful to human health;
  • If the milk products examined show traces of residues in excess of the permitted levels, they must not be allowed either for the manufacture of foodstuffs or for direct human consumption; and,
  • Tests for residues must be carried out in accordance with nationally / internationally recognised methods.

Table 5.3.5
Typical dairy plant quality tests and their purpose (Pg 342)


Raw material/inputs

  • Direct microscopic count
  • Sensory (odour, flavour)
  • Titratable acidity
  • Microbiological quality
  • General quality
  • Freshness, handling practice
Fruits, nuts, syrups, sweeteners
  • Yeasts and moulds
  • Osmophilic yeasts
  • Microbial contamination
  • Shelf life of the product
Packaging materials
  • Sterility testing
  • Safety/shelf life of the product.
Fresh Products
Fresh milk and other dairy products
  • Coliform
  • Escherichia coli or
  • Enterobacter aerogenes
  • Detecting unsanitary processing or packaging conditions
  • Indicator of post-pasteurization
Milk and other fresh dairy products
  • Pre-incubate product in its container at 21°C/18 hours,followed by tests like
    Standard Plate Count,
    Crystal Violet Tetrazolium,
    Gram Negative Agar (Plate count agar containing added
  • Prediction of shelf life
Milk/cottage cheese
  • Pre-incubate milk at 7°C for 5-7 days followed by Standard Plate Count test
  • Estimation of keeping quality
Inline sampling and plant sanitation
HTST/filler or packaging machine/glycol
or ice water and equipment surfaces
  • Pre-incubation followed by Standard Plate Count and Coliform Count tests
  • Contamination with psychrotrophic organisms and general sanitation
Environmental air and water samples

  • Standard Plate Count and Coliform Count tests
  • General santitation

Food Labelling (Pg 340)

The label must declare the amounts per serving for calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, sugars, dietary fibre, and protein. Also, percentage Daily Reference Values (DRV) must be shown to a 2,000-calorie and 2,500-cal/day diets for the above nutrients as well as for vitamins A and C, and calcium and iron to make the label consumer-friendly and useful.

Table 5.3.4
Product definition in terms of its fat content (Pg 341)


Fat free <0.5 g fat/serving
Calorie free <5 calories/serving
Sodium free <5 mg sodium/serving
Cholesterol free <2 mg cholesterol and 2 g saturated fat/serving
Low fat <3 g fat/serving
Low saturated fat <1 g of saturated fat/serving
Low calorie 40 calories or less/serving
Low sodium <140 mg/serving
Low cholesterol <20 mg cholesterol and no more than 2 g saturated fat/serving
Good source 10-14% DV/serving
High >=20% DV/serving
Reduced Reduction of at least 25% less of a nutrient or calories. For cholesterol, additional requirement is maximum of 2 g of saturated fat.
Less/Fewer >=25% reduction in calories or nutrient/serving
More >=10 % more of nutrient/serving
Light/Lite 1/3 fewer calories/50% less fat than a representative value for the category, provided the product is not already low in fat. If 50% calories come from fat, fat must be reduced by 50%
% Fat Free Must be low fat or fat-free. If a food contains 2 g fat / 50 g, it is 96% fat free

Section 5.2 - Management Systems for Quality and Food Safety

Guidelines for Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
(Pg 325)
  • Employees working in a food plant are required to wash their hands with a sanitizing soap prior to beginning or returning to handling of food.
  • Loose hair poses serious sanitation problems in the plant. Therefore, all persons working or visiting the production area must wear authorized head covering to avoid contact of loose hair with food product.
  • Sanitary precautions are required to be taken by employees when sneezing or coughing. An employee with infectious skin eruption, communicable disease or other infected conditions must have plant management clearance before allowed to handle food.
  • Employees in production areas should wear clean uniforms. The uniforms should be changed daily or sooner if soiled for any reason. Shirts are required to be buttoned and tucked into trousers.
  • Workers in the production area will not wear rings, and neck/ear jewellery. This practice will preclude mix-up of the foreign materials in food. Watches, pens, pencils and loose materials should be removed prior to entry to production areas.
  • Smoking, spitting or chewing of tobacco is prohibited in the production as well as storage areas.
  • Consumption of beverage or food is allowed exclusively in the designated area.
  • Nail polish and/or perfume is not allowed in production or storage areas.
  • Containers and equipment made of glass, including glass thermometers, should not be permitted in the production area.
  • Good housekeeping in the production area is necessary for work efficiency and workers' safety.


Figure 5.2.4 Quality management process model (Pg 329)

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 Concepts for Value Addition
"A group of very able authors have brought in newer concepts for products, packaging and export to outreach the Indian products to global market. We should now go further up in the value addition to milk".
- Dr V Prakash, Director, Central Food Technology Research Institute
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