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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to Ingredients Buyers and Suppliers.

Sweetners - Regulatory status (Pg 76)

Dextrose and fructose, present in jaggery, in varying amounts (depending upon the molasses content), impart hygroscopic character to it. Begasillo and earth mainly constitute the insolubles in jaggery.

As defined in PFA, gur or jaggery, other than that of liquid or semi-liquid variety, shall not contain more than 10 per cent moisture. It may contain sulphur dioxide in concentration not exceeding 70 ppm.

Khandsari (Khand)
(Pg 76)

Khandsari sugar can be distinguished from white sugar by difference in conductivity. A 5 per cent solution of khandsari shows conductivity reading of 100 to 300 millimho/cm2, while the conductivity of white sugar solution does not exceed 106 milimho/cm2.

Chini (Refined Sugar) (Pg 77 - 78)

This crystalline sugar is either refined from crude raw sugar or processed from sugarcane or sugarbeet juice. Both these sources give identical sucrose with no chemical, physical or structural differences.

As per good manufacturing practices, refined sugar is packed in clean, sound and new A-twill jute bags, lined preferably with polyethylene film. These bags are machine or hand-stitched. The net weight of the refined sugar in each bag is 100 kg. It is also packed in smaller consumer packs.

Table 2.3.6 Quality requirements of refined sugar (Pg 78)

Characteristics Quality requirement
Appearance Crystalline, white, odourless and free from dirt and other
extraneous matter
Colour in ICUMSA* units, max 50
Sucrose, per cent by weight, min
Moisture, per cent by weight, max 0.1-0.5
Reducing sugar, per cent by weight, min 0.03
Specific conductivity (w/v) aqueous solution of 35oC, max 15.0

*International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis (ICUMSA)

Maida (Refined Wheat Flour)
(Pg 80)

Maida comprises mainly the inner endosperm, with a large part of the bran and germ layers removed during milling.

Maida for use in indigenous milk products should have a characteristic taste and smell. It should be free from insect and fungus infestation, rodent contamination, dirt and other extraneous matter.

Almonds (Badam) (Pg 82)

Textural attributes of firmness and crispness are governed by moisture content in nuts. Roasting not only improves flavour of nuts but makes them crisper than the raw ones. Flavour depends on sweetness, oiliness, intensity of almond flavour, and absence of off-flavour, resulting from rancidity, staleness or other causes.

Almond: Processing and Nutritive Value (Pg 82)

Almonds are very good source of quality fats and proteins. Finely ground, blanched almond nutmeats are encapsulated in a light matrix of maltodextrin to improve flavour stability. Almond powder roughly consists of 13-15 per cent protein, 50-55 per cent fat, 20-24 per cent carbohydrate and 3-4 per cent ash. Moisture is controlled to only 1 per cent.

Kaju (Cashew) (Pg 84)

Cashew seeds are picked when fully ripe or after falling to the ground. Cashew kernels are extracted from cashew nuts by roasting, shelling and peeling. Extracted kernels are then graded. Ninety five per cent of India's total output of cashew kernels is exported to USA, Western Europe and Australia.

Copra (Dried Coconut Kernel) (Pg 85)

Coconut milk is a hand extract of fresh kernel gratings with hot water.

Shavings of copra form a food ingredient to make confections like laddus that have a pleasant chewiness.

Pistachio (Pista) (Pg 86)

Pistachio grows in grape-like clusters, encased in an outer skin called hull, which turns rosy when the nuts are ripe and ready to harvest.

For industrial processing, pistachio is mechanically shaken from the tree on to a catching frame, without touching the ground. They are immediately transported to the processing plant where they are hulled, washed, dried and sorted.

Kishmish (Raisins) (Pg 88)

Raisins are extensively used in India in the preparation of various sweets and bakery products…

Quality of raisins is determined to a great extent by the variety and composition of grapes used, and maturity or stage of harvest. Therefore, apart from being seedless, the variety should have very high solids content, preferably greater than 20-22o Brix, moderate to low acidity; thin skin, crisp, fleshy and small in size, with round to oval shape.

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 Product Database
For the first time, scientific data on some 50 Indian milk delicacies have been published, covering product description, composition, physio-chemical characteristics, sensory aspects, quality factors, shelf life, packaging, storage, technology and industrial manufacture.
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