The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian
Milk Products would be of interest to Ingredients Buyers
Sweetners - Regulatory status (Pg 76)
Dextrose and fructose, present in jaggery, in varying amounts (depending
upon the molasses content), impart hygroscopic character to it. Begasillo
and earth mainly constitute the insolubles in jaggery.
As defined in PFA, gur or jaggery, other than that of liquid or
semi-liquid variety, shall not contain more than 10 per cent moisture.
It may contain sulphur dioxide in concentration not exceeding 70
Khandsari (Khand) (Pg 76)
Khandsari sugar can be distinguished from white sugar by difference
in conductivity. A 5 per cent solution of khandsari shows conductivity
reading of 100 to 300 millimho/cm2, while the conductivity of white
sugar solution does not exceed 106 milimho/cm2.
Chini (Refined Sugar) (Pg 77 - 78)
This crystalline sugar is either refined from crude raw sugar or
processed from sugarcane or sugarbeet juice. Both these sources
give identical sucrose with no chemical, physical or structural
As per good manufacturing practices, refined sugar is packed in
clean, sound and new A-twill jute bags, lined preferably with polyethylene
film. These bags are machine or hand-stitched. The net weight of
the refined sugar in each bag is 100 kg. It is also packed in smaller
Table 2.3.6 Quality requirements of refined sugar (Pg 78)
||Crystalline, white, odourless and free from
dirt and other
|Colour in ICUMSA* units, max
|Sucrose, per cent by weight, min
|Moisture, per cent by weight, max
|Reducing sugar, per cent by weight, min
|Specific conductivity (w/v) aqueous solution
of 35oC, max
*International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis
Maida (Refined Wheat Flour) (Pg 80)
Maida comprises mainly the inner endosperm, with a large part of
the bran and germ layers removed during milling.
Maida for use in indigenous milk products should have a characteristic
taste and smell. It should be free from insect and fungus infestation,
rodent contamination, dirt and other extraneous matter.
Almonds (Badam) (Pg 82)
Textural attributes of firmness and crispness are governed by moisture
content in nuts. Roasting not only improves flavour of nuts but
makes them crisper than the raw ones. Flavour depends on sweetness,
oiliness, intensity of almond flavour, and absence of off-flavour,
resulting from rancidity, staleness or other causes.
Almond: Processing and Nutritive Value (Pg 82)
Almonds are very good source of quality fats and proteins. Finely
ground, blanched almond nutmeats are encapsulated in a light matrix
of maltodextrin to improve flavour stability. Almond powder roughly
consists of 13-15 per cent protein, 50-55 per cent fat, 20-24 per
cent carbohydrate and 3-4 per cent ash. Moisture is controlled to
only 1 per cent.
Kaju (Cashew) (Pg 84)
Cashew seeds are picked when fully ripe or after falling to the
ground. Cashew kernels are extracted from cashew nuts by roasting,
shelling and peeling. Extracted kernels are then graded. Ninety
five per cent of India's total output of cashew kernels is exported
to USA, Western Europe and Australia.
Copra (Dried Coconut Kernel) (Pg 85)
Coconut milk is a hand extract of fresh kernel gratings with hot
Shavings of copra form a food ingredient to make confections like
laddus that have a pleasant chewiness.
Pistachio (Pista) (Pg 86)
Pistachio grows in grape-like clusters, encased in an outer skin
called hull, which turns rosy when the nuts are ripe and ready to
For industrial processing, pistachio is mechanically shaken from
the tree on to a catching frame, without touching the ground. They
are immediately transported to the processing plant where they are
hulled, washed, dried and sorted.
Kishmish (Raisins) (Pg 88)
Raisins are extensively used in India in the preparation of various
sweets and bakery products
Quality of raisins is determined to a great extent by the variety
and composition of grapes used, and maturity or stage of harvest.
Therefore, apart from being seedless, the variety should have very
high solids content, preferably greater than 20-22o Brix, moderate
to low acidity; thin skin, crisp, fleshy and small in size, with
round to oval shape.
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|For the first time, scientific
data on some 50 Indian milk delicacies have been published,
covering product description, composition, physio-chemical characteristics,
sensory aspects, quality factors, shelf life, packaging, storage,
technology and industrial manufacture.