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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to people associated with Dairy Science Colleges, Veterinary Colleges and Related Institutions, Departments of State Agricultural Universities.


Section 2.1 - Milk: Its Composition and Processing Characteristics

Definition of Milk (Pg 49)

Milk, according to the PFA Rules, is the normal mammary secretion derived from the complete milking of healthy milch animal without either addition thereto or extraction therefrom. It shall be free from colostrum. Milk of different classes and of different designations shall conform to the standards laid down in Table 2.1.2. It shall conform to both the parameters for milk fat and milk solids-not-fat (SNF), independently, as prescribed in columns four and five of this table. Milk shall include cow's or buffalo's, or sheep's or goat's or a mixture thereof.



Table 2.1.2
PFA standards for different classes and designations of milk in India (Pg 50)

Minimum percentage
Class of Milk Designations
State and Union Territories
Milk fat
Milk solids -not-fat (SNF)
Buffalo milk Raw, pasteurized, boiled, flavoured and sterilized Assam; Bihar; Chandigarh; Delhi; Gujarat; Maharashtra; Haryana;Meghalaya; Punjab; Sikkim; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal; Andaman & Nicobar; Andhra Pradesh; Arunachal Pradesh; Dadra & Nagar
Haveli; Goa; Daman & Diu; Kerala; Himachal Pradesh; Jammu
& Kashmir; Karnataka.
6.0
9.0
-do-
Kerala; Lakshadweep; Madhya Pradesh; Manipur; Mizoram; Nagaland; Orissa; Pondicherry; Rajasthan; Tripura; Tamil Nadu.
5.0
9.0
Cow milk
-do-
Chandigarh; Haryana; Punjab.
4.0
8.5
-do-
Andaman & Nicobar; Andhra Pradesh; Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Bihar; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Delhi; Goa; Daman & Diu; Gujarat; Himachal Pradesh; Jammu & Kashmir; Karnataka; Kerala; Lakshadweep; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Manipur; Meghalaya; Nagaland, Pondicherry; Rajasthan; Sikkim; Tamil Nadu; Tripura; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal.
3.5
8.5
-do-
Mizoram; Orissa.
3.0
8.5
Goat or sheep milk
-do-
Chandigarh; Haryana; Kerala; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Punjab; Uttar Pradesh.
3.5
9.0
-do-
Andaman & Nicobar; Andhra Pradesh; Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Bihar; Dadra & Nagar Haveli; Delhi; Goa; Daman & Diu; Gujarat; Himachal Pradesh; Jammu & Kashmir; Karnataka; Lakshadweep; Manipur; Meghalaya; Mizoram;
Nagaland; Orissa; Pondicherry; Rajasthan; Sikkim; Tamil Nadu; Tripura; West Bengal.
3.0
9.0
Mixed milk
-do-
All India
4.5
8.5
Standardized milk Pasteurized, flavoured and sterilized All India
4.5
8.5
Recombined milk
-do-
All India
3.0
8.5
Toned milk
-do-
All India
3.0
8.5
Double toned milk
-do-
All India
1.5
9.0
Skimmed milk
-do-
All India
Not more than 0.5
8.7
Full cream milk Pasteurized and sterilized All India
6.0
9.0
Source: Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Rules, 1995   


Terms related to milk structure (Pg 52)

Milk lipids: Commonly known as milk fat, they are present in milk in microscopic globular emulsion of fat.
Milk plasma: The fluid portion of milk minus fat globules, almost similar to skim milk.
Milk serum: Milk plasma minus milk fat and casein micelles.
Whey: Removal of casein micelles from skim milk by clotting with rennet or by acidification to pH 4.6 yields the liquid called whey. It is different from milk serum in that it contains some polypeptides cleaved from casein by rennet.


Section 2.2 - Hygienic Handling of Raw Milk: Recommended Practices

Hygienic Handling of Raw Milk (Pg 61)

Systems and standard control procedures such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), and Total Quality Management (TQM) are widely accepted as the basis of quality assurance and food safety regulations among large and progressive dairy establishments around the world.

Quality issues encompass management of hygienic aspects of milk production, raw milk handling, procurement of milk from rural areas, its processing for product manufacture, packaging, storage and distribution. Various unit operations relating to quality management have also been reviewed.



Table 2.2.1
Effect of storage temperature on bacterial growth in milk
(Pg 63)

Milk held for 18 hours
at temperature (oC)
Bacterial growth factor*
0
1.00
5
1.05
10
1.80
15
10.00
20
200.00
25
120,000.00
* Multiply initial count with this factor to get the final count.


Section 5.2 - Management Systems for Quality and Food Safety

Management Systems for Quality and Food Safety (Pg 323)

Excellence in food quality and safety has taken a tangible form with the advent of ISO 9000 Quality Management System and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) standards. ISO 9000 encompasses all the activities of a company to ensure that it meets its quality objectives, while HACCP is directed towards ensuring food safety. The ISO 9000 standards were brought by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the HACCP standards by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). These standards have assumed importance worldwide both as an essential requirement to tap the market potential and as a marketable feature of the company. Since the global market has become more demanding in terms of quality, safety and timely delivery, installation of the ISO 9000 Quality Management System and HACCP by the food industry is essential for getting a competitive international edge.






Figure 5.2.3 A foundation for excellence (Pg 327)





Figure 5.2.4 Quality management process model (Pg 329)



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Management Systems
"Different management systems for product quality and food safety such as ISO and HACCP have been dealt with at length. These aspects are becoming increasingly important to win consumer confidence in domestic and export market".
- Indian Food Industry, Mysore
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