The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk
Products would be of interest to Management Specialists.
Section 5.2 - Management Systems for Quality and Food Safety
ISO 9000 Quality Management Systems (Pg 325)
The ISO 9000 system is looked at as a system with minimum quality
requirements. It builds a baseline system for managing quality. The
focus, therefore, is on designing a total quality management system,
one that complies with external standards, but includes the specific
requirement of industry and integrates elements of competitiveness.
The main features of the ISO 9000:2000 standards are:
- Refinement in the presentation to make
reading easy and elimination of general inauditable statements
such as "consideration shall be given
have been effected in language to make things clearer, easier
in understanding and more easily translatable in different languages.
- The present standard gave an impression
that it was applicable to manufacturing situation though it was
applied in organizations of different types and sizes, including
the service sector. The new standard has no such association with
manufacturing industries. It is a broad-based standard applicable
to all sectors.
- In the new standards approach has changed
from continuous improvement to continual improvement. Continuous
improvement remained an implied approach to quality improvement
in ISO 9000. However, the concept of continuous improvement is
not sustainable, as a straight-line upward progression cannot
be achieved. It has to be a designed improvement plan for product,
process and system with carefully quantified increase within a
stipulated time to continuously meet dynamic needs of customers.
It is ladder improvement on identified parameters of quality or
Total Quality Management (TQM) (Pg 329)
It is defined as "that aspect of the overall management that
determines and implements the quality policy and as such is the
responsibility of top management." Thus, TQM is an organizational
concern and not a domain of any specialist or specific function.
Table 5.2.1 Elements of TQM system (Pg 330)
|It should be clear, and the management must
disseminate the quality policy at all levels.
|Team Work Participation
|All employees must be deeply involved in
improvement of quality systems.
|Quality Tools and Techniques
|All modern tools and techniques are adopted.
|Continuous Education and Training
||Documented procedures to be adopted to identify
training needs, especially for skilled tasks.
||Methods to generate and evaluate customer
satisfaction must be devised.
Table 5.2.2 Guiding principles for successful TQM (Pg 330)
||An obsession for customer needs through regular
||Future vision of the organization
|| Dedication to continuously strive for improvement
and professional excellence.
|| Coach the team and support the efforts
||Leads to strategic goals and plans
||Translates the organization strategy into
||Empowerment and participation
|Team work approach
||For efficiency and maximizing productivity
|Education for learning
|Each function to be assessed for its purpose.
||Essential for active involvement of whole
organization and people in company's vision and values
|| Follow dynamic concept of improvement, raise
|Measurement and audit
||Meticulously planned and periodic monitoring
systems to ensure excellence
Seven Principles of HACCP (Pg 332)
The five preliminary steps serve as basis for seven principles for
HACCP implementation, given below:
Principle 1 Conduct Hazard Analysis: When conducting
the hazard analysis, consideration must be given to the impact of
raw materials, ingre-dients, manufacturing practices, role of manufacturing
processes to control hazards, likely end-use of the product, consumer
populations at risk and epidemio-logical evidence relative to food
Principle 2 Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs):
A critical control point is a point/step/procedure where a food
safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable
Critical limits must be specified for each pre-ventive measure.
In some cases more than one critical limit will be elaborated at
a particular step.
Principle 3 Establish Critical Limits for each CCP:
A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a physical,
chemical or biological hazard must be controlled at its CCP to prevent,
eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence of the
identified food safety hazard. The critical limits should be specified
and validated (if possible) for critical control points.
The critical limits are normally fixed at tolerances given in the
regulations, which have to be met or guided by process variations.
There is no room for error before the product violates regulatory
requirements. Therefore, process variation must be kept in mind
while fixing the limit.
Principle 4 Establish a Monitor System for Each CCP:
The monitoring procedures must be able to detect loss of control
at the CCP. Further, monitoring should ideally provide this information
in time for corrective action to be taken to regain control of the
process before there is a need to reject the product arises.
The CCP monitoring system would be effective if:
- Clearly identified personnel are made
responsible for monitoring;
- Trained personnel are deployed for monitoring
- It is ensured that personnel understand purpose
and importance of monitoring.
Principle 5 Establish Corrective Actions: Corrective
actions must ensure that the CCP has been brought back under control
before the deviation leads to a safety hazard. Actions taken must
also include proper disposition of the affected product. The corrective
actions should include:
- Determining the disposition of non-conforming
- Correcting the cause of non-conformity to prevent
- Demonstrating that the CCP is once again under
control and results are within the critical limits,
- Maintaining records of corrective actions.
Principle 6 Establish Verification Procedures: Monitoring
and auditing methods, procedures and tests, including random sampling
and analysis, can be used to determine if the HACCP system is working
correctly and effectively. Examples of verification activities include:
- Review of deviations and product dispositions,
- Review of the HACCP system and its records,
- Operations to determine if CCPs are under control,
- Validation of established critical limits.
Principle 7 Establish Documentation and Record Keeping:
Documentation of HACCP procedures at all steps should be included
and assembled in a manual. The types of records that might be retained
are as follows:
- HACCP plan,
- Amendment to HACCP plan,
- CCP monitoring records,
- Training records,
- Audit records,
- Meeting records,
- HACCP system procedures.
Table 5.3.6 FDA-specified standard methods for analysis
of dairy products (Pg 343)
|Fat content for milk
||AOAC, Sections 16.059, 16.172
|Total solids for milk
||AOAC, Section 16.169
|Milk solids-not-fat content for milk
||AOAC, Section 16.032
||AOAC, Section 16.032
|Vitamin D content
||AOAC, Sections 43.195-43.208
|Moisture content for dry dairy products
||AOAC, Section 16.192
|Moisture content for cheese
||AOAC, Section 16.233
|Fat content for cheese
|AOAC, Section 16.255
|Phenol equivalent (Phosphatase test)
||AOAC, Sections 16.275-16.277
|Fat content for frozen desserts
||AOAC, Sections 16.287-16.059
|Protein content & PER for frozen desserts
||AOAC, Sections 16.285-286, 43.212-43.216
Order the handbook. Have queries?
|The handbook places a
lot of emphasis on project design, equipment specifications
and plant layouts for the design of projects for the industrial
manufacture of these products and
consumption market data to cater to local preferences.
- Barry Wilson, Dairy
Industry Newsletter, UK