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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to Management Specialists.

Section 5.2 - Management Systems for Quality and Food Safety

ISO 9000 Quality Management Systems (Pg 325)

The ISO 9000 system is looked at as a system with minimum quality requirements. It builds a baseline system for managing quality. The focus, therefore, is on designing a total quality management system, one that complies with external standards, but includes the specific requirement of industry and integrates elements of competitiveness.

The main features of the ISO 9000:2000 standards are:
  • Refinement in the presentation to make reading easy and elimination of general inauditable statements such as "consideration shall be given…". Changes have been effected in language to make things clearer, easier in understanding and more easily translatable in different languages.
  • The present standard gave an impression that it was applicable to manufacturing situation though it was applied in organizations of different types and sizes, including the service sector. The new standard has no such association with manufacturing industries. It is a broad-based standard applicable to all sectors.
  • In the new standards approach has changed from continuous improvement to continual improvement. Continuous improvement remained an implied approach to quality improvement in ISO 9000. However, the concept of continuous improvement is not sustainable, as a straight-line upward progression cannot be achieved. It has to be a designed improvement plan for product, process and system with carefully quantified increase within a stipulated time to continuously meet dynamic needs of customers. It is ladder improvement on identified parameters of quality or process.

Total Quality Management (TQM)
(Pg 329)

It is defined as "that aspect of the overall management that determines and implements the quality policy and as such is the responsibility of top management." Thus, TQM is an organizational concern and not a domain of any specialist or specific function.

Table 5.2.1
Elements of TQM system (Pg 330)

Management Commitment

It should be clear, and the management must disseminate the quality policy at all levels.
Team Work Participation
All employees must be deeply involved in improvement of quality systems.
Quality Tools and Techniques

All modern tools and techniques are adopted.
Continuous Education and Training Documented procedures to be adopted to identify training needs, especially for skilled tasks.
Customer Satisfaction Methods to generate and evaluate customer satisfaction must be devised.

Table 5.2.2
Guiding principles for successful TQM (Pg 330)

Customer orientation An obsession for customer needs through regular feedback
Vision Future vision of the organization
Quality culture Dedication to continuously strive for improvement and professional excellence.
Leadership Coach the team and support the efforts
Quality strategy Leads to strategic goals and plans
Values Translates the organization strategy into thrust areas
Employees Empowerment and participation
Team work approach For efficiency and maximizing productivity
Education for learning
Each function to be assessed for its purpose.
Communication Essential for active involvement of whole organization and people in company's vision and values
Continuous improvement Follow dynamic concept of improvement, raise 'benchmark'
Measurement and audit Meticulously planned and periodic monitoring systems to ensure excellence

Seven Principles of HACCP
(Pg 332)

The five preliminary steps serve as basis for seven principles for HACCP implementation, given below:

Principle 1 — Conduct Hazard Analysis: When conducting the hazard analysis, consideration must be given to the impact of raw materials, ingre-dients, manufacturing practices, role of manufacturing processes to control hazards, likely end-use of the product, consumer populations at risk and epidemio-logical evidence relative to food safety.

Principle 2 — Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs): A critical control point is a point/step/procedure where a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels.

Critical limits must be specified for each pre-ventive measure. In some cases more than one critical limit will be elaborated at a particular step.

Principle 3 — Establish Critical Limits for each CCP: A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, chemical or biological hazard must be controlled at its CCP to prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence of the identified food safety hazard. The critical limits should be specified and validated (if possible) for critical control points.

The critical limits are normally fixed at tolerances given in the regulations, which have to be met or guided by process variations. There is no room for error before the product violates regulatory requirements. Therefore, process variation must be kept in mind while fixing the limit.

Principle 4 — Establish a Monitor System for Each CCP: The monitoring procedures must be able to detect loss of control at the CCP. Further, monitoring should ideally provide this information in time for corrective action to be taken to regain control of the process before there is a need to reject the product arises.

The CCP monitoring system would be effective if:

  • Clearly identified personnel are made responsible for monitoring;
  • Trained personnel are deployed for monitoring CCPs; and
  • It is ensured that personnel understand purpose and importance of monitoring.

Principle 5 — Establish Corrective Actions: Corrective actions must ensure that the CCP has been brought back under control before the deviation leads to a safety hazard. Actions taken must also include proper disposition of the affected product. The corrective actions should include:

  • Determining the disposition of non-conforming product,
  • Correcting the cause of non-conformity to prevent recurrence,
  • Demonstrating that the CCP is once again under control and results are within the critical limits,
  • Maintaining records of corrective actions.

Principle 6 — Establish Verification Procedures: Monitoring and auditing methods, procedures and tests, including random sampling and analysis, can be used to determine if the HACCP system is working correctly and effectively. Examples of verification activities include:

  • Review of deviations and product dispositions,
  • Review of the HACCP system and its records,
  • Operations to determine if CCPs are under control, and
  • Validation of established critical limits.

Principle 7 — Establish Documentation and Record Keeping: Documentation of HACCP procedures at all steps should be included and assembled in a manual. The types of records that might be retained are as follows:

  • HACCP plan,
  • Amendment to HACCP plan,
  • CCP monitoring records,
  • Training records,
  • Audit records,
  • Meeting records,
  • HACCP system procedures.

Table 5.3.6 FDA-specified standard methods for analysis of dairy products (Pg 343)


Fat content for milk AOAC, Sections 16.059, 16.172
Total solids for milk AOAC, Section 16.169
Milk solids-not-fat content for milk AOAC, Section 16.032
Titratable acidity AOAC, Section 16.032
Vitamin D content AOAC, Sections 43.195-43.208
Moisture content for dry dairy products AOAC, Section 16.192
Moisture content for cheese AOAC, Section 16.233
Fat content for cheese

AOAC, Section 16.255
Phenol equivalent (Phosphatase test) AOAC, Sections 16.275-16.277
Fat content for frozen desserts AOAC, Sections 16.287-16.059
Protein content & PER for frozen desserts AOAC, Sections 16.285-286, 43.212-43.216

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