The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk
Products would be of interest to Manufacturers of Ethnic Milk
Section 1.1: Modernization Opens Global Markets
Traditional Sweets (Pg 8)
The traditional dairy products of the Indian subcontinent are broadly
classified into the following five categories:
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has worked
out specifications for khoa, paneer, chhana, dahi, shrikhand, burfi,
rasogollas, kulfi and gulabjamuns.
- Desiccated Milk-based Products: Khoa/Mawa,
Gulabjamun, Kalajamun, Lalmohan, Burfi, Kalakand, Milk Cake, Peda,
Rabri, Khurchan, Basundi, and Kulfi.
- Heat-Acid Coagulated Products: Paneer,
Chhana, Rasogolla, Rasomalai, Rajbhog, Khirmohan, Sandesh, Pantua,
Chhana-Murki, and Cham-cham.
- Cultured/Fermented Products: Dahi, Mishti
Doi, Shrikhand, Lassi, Mattha/Chhach/Chhas, Kadhi, Raita, and
- Fat-Rich Products: Ghee, Ghee-residue
Chocolate /Burfi Confection, Makkhan (freshly-churned butter),
- Milk-based Puddings/Desserts: Kheer,
Payasam, Phirni, Sevian, Sabodana Kheer, Lauki Kheer, Sohan Halwa,
Gajar-ka-halwa, and Kaju Burfi.
Scope for Modernization (Pg 8-9)
The Indian dairy industry is poised for a major breakthrough as
a result of the application of modern technologies in the production
of traditional milk products. Their production and marketing can
bring about a remarkable value addition to the extent of 200 per
cent, as compared to only 50 per cent obtained by western-type products
like butter, cheese and milk powders.
A number of modern dairies have already taken to the production
of popular milk products like burfi, gulabjamun, rasogolla, shrikhand,
kheer, paneer, peda, curd, lassi. Some of these products have registered
a high growth rate, ranging from 15 to 20 per cent.
The market for value-added indigenous dairy products is set for
a rapid growth. This development marks the second wave of India's
White Revolution that is transforming the face of the dairy industry.
The first wave made India the world's biggest milk producer and
the biggest market. The second wave is boosting the organized sector
and will make it a significant segment of the industry with its
market share doubling from the present 10-12 per cent of milk processed.
A new market of over Rs 50,000 million is expected largely from
ethnic foods such as flavoured milks, dahi, paneer, buttermilk,
lassi, gulabjamun, shrikhand and kheer.
Milk in Daily Diet (Pg 9)
India is regarded as the first country to have developed products
like dahi (yogurt), makkhan and ghee and to use them in daily diet.
In the Indian food ethos, milk mixed with cereals and pulses has
been regarded as the staple food. Several references in the ancient
Indian literature commend this blending for their 'satvik' (positive/godly)
attributes. These have also been promoted as ideal food for persons
pursuing spiritual and higher academic pursuits.
Milk plays a major role as a source of animal proteins in the average
Indian diet that is largely vegetarian. As much as 46 per cent of
milk produced in the country is consumed as liquid milk that reflects
its importance in the national diet. The average per capita milk
availability in 2001 was 226 grams/day, exceeding the recommended
level of 220 grams.
Milk Utilization Plan (Pg 10)
In India, milk is mostly produced in small quantities of two-four
litres by some 70 million small and marginal farmers in 500,000
villages. The country has a long tradition of keeping milch animals
as part of the farming household. Buffalo and cow and, to a limited
extent, goat are the main milch animals in the Indian subcontinent
Buffalo contributes some 54 per cent, cow 43 per cent and goat 3
per cent to India's total milk output.
About 50 per cent of India's milk production is utilized for making
indigenous milk products such as ghee, makkhan, khoa, paneer, chhana
and curd. These products provide a profitable outlet to the organized
Process Innovations (Pg 19-20)
Unit operations used in the manufacture of Western-type food products
have been successfully adapted for the large-scale production of
ethnic products, utilizing the latest energy-efficient equipment.
Thus, quarg separators are in use to concentrate dahi for the production
of shrikhand. Scraped-surface heat exchangers have been used to
pasteurize and process shrikhand. Meatball-portioning machines and
doughnut fryers have been used in the manufacture of gulabjamuns.
Japanese pastry-making machines have been employed to make products
similar to burfi. Tofu-making machines are successfully making paneer.
Khoa has been manufactured using roller driers and scraped-surface
heat exchangers. Planetary mixers and Rheon shaping machines are
being used to make other milk-based sweets.
The Way Forward (Pg 21)
Ultra Filtration/Reverse Osmosis (UF/RO) technologies can be used
for chhana making and concentration of milk. Whey produced in the
manufacture of chhana is mostly drained away and wasted. However,
the industrial process of manufacturing will help in the recovery
of valuable byproducts such as lactose and whey proteins. Similarly,
the technology of recombining milk constituents can be adopted to
manufacture traditional products during the lean season and in distant
places, away from centres of surplus milk production.
Section 2.2: Hygienic Handling of Raw Milk:
Table 2.2.1 Effect of storage temperature on bacterial growth
* Multiply initial count with this factor to
get the final count.
Milk held for 18 hours
at temperature (oC)
Bacterial growth factor*
Grading of Milk (Pg 65)
The minimum standards for fat and SNF for accepting milk are: Cow
milk - fat: 4.5 per cent, SNF: 8.5 per cent; Buffalo milk - fat:
6.0 per cent, SNF: 9.0 per cent; Mixed milk - fat: 5 per cent, SNF:
8.5 per cent.
Milk Processing (Pg 66)
Various unit operations performed for processing the raw milk are
storage, filtration/clarification, separation, standardization,
pasteurization, as well as more recently, membrane processing.
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|This compendium would
be useful in three ways: one, by alerting prospective entrepreneurs
on new opportunities in dairy-related agri-enterprises; two,
by helping them in implementation and evaluation of such projects,
using the data, cost estimates and process know-how detailed
in the handbook; three, by serving as an essential resource
base for developing training materials.