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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to Manufacturers of Ethnic Milk Products.

Section 1.1: Modernization Opens Global Markets

Traditional Sweets
(Pg 8)
The traditional dairy products of the Indian subcontinent are broadly classified into the following five categories:

  • Desiccated Milk-based Products: Khoa/Mawa, Gulabjamun, Kalajamun, Lalmohan, Burfi, Kalakand, Milk Cake, Peda, Rabri, Khurchan, Basundi, and Kulfi.
  • Heat-Acid Coagulated Products: Paneer, Chhana, Rasogolla, Rasomalai, Rajbhog, Khirmohan, Sandesh, Pantua, Chhana-Murki, and Cham-cham.
  • Cultured/Fermented Products: Dahi, Mishti Doi, Shrikhand, Lassi, Mattha/Chhach/Chhas, Kadhi, Raita, and Dahi Vada.
  • Fat-Rich Products: Ghee, Ghee-residue Chocolate /Burfi Confection, Makkhan (freshly-churned butter), and Malai.
  • Milk-based Puddings/Desserts: Kheer, Payasam, Phirni, Sevian, Sabodana Kheer, Lauki Kheer, Sohan Halwa, Gajar-ka-halwa, and Kaju Burfi.
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has worked out specifications for khoa, paneer, chhana, dahi, shrikhand, burfi, rasogollas, kulfi and gulabjamuns.

Scope for Modernization
(Pg 8-9)

The Indian dairy industry is poised for a major breakthrough as a result of the application of modern technologies in the production of traditional milk products. Their production and marketing can bring about a remarkable value addition to the extent of 200 per cent, as compared to only 50 per cent obtained by western-type products like butter, cheese and milk powders.

A number of modern dairies have already taken to the production of popular milk products like burfi, gulabjamun, rasogolla, shrikhand, kheer, paneer, peda, curd, lassi. Some of these products have registered a high growth rate, ranging from 15 to 20 per cent.

The market for value-added indigenous dairy products is set for a rapid growth. This development marks the second wave of India's White Revolution that is transforming the face of the dairy industry. The first wave made India the world's biggest milk producer and the biggest market. The second wave is boosting the organized sector and will make it a significant segment of the industry with its market share doubling from the present 10-12 per cent of milk processed. A new market of over Rs 50,000 million is expected largely from ethnic foods such as flavoured milks, dahi, paneer, buttermilk, lassi, gulabjamun, shrikhand and kheer.

Milk in Daily Diet (Pg 9)

India is regarded as the first country to have developed products like dahi (yogurt), makkhan and ghee and to use them in daily diet.

In the Indian food ethos, milk mixed with cereals and pulses has been regarded as the staple food. Several references in the ancient Indian literature commend this blending for their 'satvik' (positive/godly) attributes. These have also been promoted as ideal food for persons pursuing spiritual and higher academic pursuits.

Milk plays a major role as a source of animal proteins in the average Indian diet that is largely vegetarian. As much as 46 per cent of milk produced in the country is consumed as liquid milk that reflects its importance in the national diet. The average per capita milk availability in 2001 was 226 grams/day, exceeding the recommended level of 220 grams.

Milk Utilization Plan (Pg 10)

In India, milk is mostly produced in small quantities of two-four litres by some 70 million small and marginal farmers in 500,000 villages. The country has a long tradition of keeping milch animals as part of the farming household. Buffalo and cow and, to a limited extent, goat are the main milch animals in the Indian subcontinent Buffalo contributes some 54 per cent, cow 43 per cent and goat 3 per cent to India's total milk output.

About 50 per cent of India's milk production is utilized for making indigenous milk products such as ghee, makkhan, khoa, paneer, chhana and curd. These products provide a profitable outlet to the organized sector.

Process Innovations (Pg 19-20)

Unit operations used in the manufacture of Western-type food products have been successfully adapted for the large-scale production of ethnic products, utilizing the latest energy-efficient equipment. Thus, quarg separators are in use to concentrate dahi for the production of shrikhand. Scraped-surface heat exchangers have been used to pasteurize and process shrikhand. Meatball-portioning machines and doughnut fryers have been used in the manufacture of gulabjamuns. Japanese pastry-making machines have been employed to make products similar to burfi. Tofu-making machines are successfully making paneer. Khoa has been manufactured using roller driers and scraped-surface heat exchangers. Planetary mixers and Rheon shaping machines are being used to make other milk-based sweets.

The Way Forward
(Pg 21)

Ultra Filtration/Reverse Osmosis (UF/RO) technologies can be used for chhana making and concentration of milk. Whey produced in the manufacture of chhana is mostly drained away and wasted. However, the industrial process of manufacturing will help in the recovery of valuable byproducts such as lactose and whey proteins. Similarly, the technology of recombining milk constituents can be adopted to manufacture traditional products during the lean season and in distant places, away from centres of surplus milk production.

Section 2.2: Hygienic Handling of Raw Milk: Recommended Practices

Table 2.2.1 Effect of storage temperature on bacterial growth in milk
(Pg 63)

Milk held for 18 hours
at temperature (oC)
Bacterial growth factor*
* Multiply initial count with this factor to get the final count.

Grading of Milk
(Pg 65)

The minimum standards for fat and SNF for accepting milk are: Cow milk - fat: 4.5 per cent, SNF: 8.5 per cent; Buffalo milk - fat: 6.0 per cent, SNF: 9.0 per cent; Mixed milk - fat: 5 per cent, SNF: 8.5 per cent.

Milk Processing
(Pg 66)

Various unit operations performed for processing the raw milk are storage, filtration/clarification, separation, standardization, pasteurization, as well as more recently, membrane processing.

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Triple Uses
This compendium would be useful in three ways: one, by alerting prospective entrepreneurs on new opportunities in dairy-related agri-enterprises; two, by helping them in implementation and evaluation of such projects, using the data, cost estimates and process know-how detailed in the handbook; three, by serving as an essential resource base for developing training materials.
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