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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to Market Researchers.

Section 1.1 - Modernization Opens Global Markets

Market: National and Global
(Pg 15)

A major market for Indian milk-based sweets is developing overseas. In North America alone, this market is estimated at US $500 million. Some 20 million Indians, over half of them living in the West, are part of the upper income group. The highly successful Indian community is reported to have an annual income of US $300 billion-almost three times India's GDP.

The Indian diaspora presents an exciting avenue for globalization of mithais. Entrepreneurs in Europe, North America and Australia are looking into the prospects of manufacturing them, as is evident from an increasing number of enquiries received in India for equipment to manufacture paneer, khoa, shrikhand, gulabjamun, etc. A Canadian initiative, IDP Foods, Inc, to produce Indian milk products in North America, has gone on stream in June 2002. It is the largest attempt outside India to make ethnic Indian dairy products on an industrial scale.

Indian mithais have good commercial market in developed countries where the share of food in the overall household expenditure is small.

Table 1.1.7 Milk utilization pattern in India, 1943-2001 (Pg 10)


Milk production (million tonnes)
Milk utilization (percentage)

A. Liquid milk:
B. Traditional products:
Ghee/makkhan (clarified butter)
Dahi (curds/chakka)
Khoa (partially dessicated milk)
Chhana & paneer (cottage cheese)
C. Western products:
Milk powder, etc

*includes Pakistan & Bangladesh

Section 1.2 - Market Survey and Analysis

Table 1.2.11 Product profile by sales volume in five metro cities (Pg 28)

Product base/process Category-wise average sales as % of total sales
  Ahmedabad Mumbai Delhi Bangalore Kolkata

Khoa sweets 51.0 74.9 62.1 71.6 28.0
Chhana sweets 9.7 11.8 27.2 19.1 60.6
Khoa-Chhana blend 1.9 4.7 5.4 6.5 0.0


9.7 2.4 3.8 1.3 0.0
18.0 2.7 0.1 0.0 7.5
9.7 3.5 1.4 1.5 3.9
Total 100 100 100 100 100

India: World's Largest Dairy Market (Pg 32)

India today is the world’s largest and fastest growing market for milk and milk products. With an annual growth rate of about 4.5 per cent, the country’s milk production, mostly rural-based, exceeded 230 million litres per day (84.6 million tonnes per year) in 2001.

Some 70 million farmers maintaining a milch herd of about 100 million — 54 million cows and 42 million buffaloes, fed largely on crop residues. They account for 97 per cent of all milk produced in India.

Operation Flood (1970–1996) has modernized India’s dairy sector. In 2002, over 30 dairy plants have been awarded the ISO:9000 and HACCP certification, and their number is increasing.

Marketing: The indigenous dairy products account for 50 per cent of milk utilization. Significant headway has been made in the industrial production of traditional sweets such as shrikhand, gulabjamun, peda and burfi.

The bulk of the demand for milk, however, is in urban areas, amounting to some 125 million lpd, accounting for more than 80 per cent of traded milk.

Presently, the modern milk distribution network supplies hygienically-packed, quality pasteurized milk to about 1,000 cities and towns. This number could go up by almost five times in the foreseeable future. According to one estimate, the packed, pasteurized, liquid milk segment, presently estimated at 15 million lpd, would double in the next five years, giving both strength and volume to the modern sector.

New emerging dairy markets will focus on:
(a) Food service institutional market
(b) Defence market
(c) Ingredients market
(d) Parlour market

Table 5.3.5 Typical dairy plant quality tests and their purpose (Pg 342)


Raw material/inputs

  • Direct microscopic count
  • Sensory (odour, flavour)
  • Titratable acidity
  • Microbiological quality
  • General quality
  • Freshness, handling practice
Fruits, nuts, syrups, sweeteners
  • Yeasts and moulds
  • Osmophilic yeasts
  • Microbial contamination
  • Shelf life of the product
Packaging materials
  • Sterility testing
  • Safety/shelf life of the product.
Fresh Products
Fresh milk and other dairy products
  • Coliform
  • Escherichia coli or
  • Enterobacter aerogenes
  • Detecting unsanitary processing or packaging conditions
  • Indicator of post-pasteurization
Milk and other fresh dairy products
  • Pre-incubate product in its container at 21°C/18 hours,followed by tests like
    Standard Plate Count,
    Crystal Violet Tetrazolium,
    Gram Negative Agar (Plate count agar containing added
  • Prediction of shelf life
Milk/cottage cheese
  • Pre-incubate milk at 7°C for 5-7 days followed by Standard Plate Count test
  • Estimation of keeping quality
Inline sampling and plant sanitation
HTST/filler or packaging machine/glycol
or ice water and equipment surfaces
  • Pre-incubation followed by Standard Plate Count and Coliform Count tests
  • Contamination with psychrotrophic organisms and general sanitation
Environmental air and water samples

  • Standard Plate Count and Coliform Count tests
  • General santitation

Table 5.3.6 FDA-specified standard methods for analysis of dairy products (Pg 343)


Fat content for milk AOAC, Sections 16.059, 16.172
Total solids for milk AOAC, Section 16.169
Milk solids-not-fat content for milk AOAC, Section 16.032
Titratable acidity AOAC, Section 16.032
Vitamin D content AOAC, Sections 43.195-43.208
Moisture content for dry dairy products AOAC, Section 16.192
Moisture content for cheese AOAC, Section 16.233
Fat content for cheese

AOAC, Section 16.255
Phenol equivalent (Phosphatase test) AOAC, Sections 16.275-16.277
Fat content for frozen desserts AOAC, Sections 16.287-16.059
Protein content & PER for frozen desserts AOAC, Sections 16.285-286, 43.212-43.216

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 Project Design
The handbook places a lot of emphasis on project design, equipment specifications and plant layouts for the design of projects for the industrial manufacture of these products and
consumption market data to cater to local preferences.
- Barry Wilson, Dairy Industry Newsletter, UK
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