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Technocrats interested in mechanized production of ethnic milk products would find the following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products useful.

Section 5.1: Process and Product Development Techniques

Process and Product Development Techniques (Pg 315)

... in recent years, responding to changes in lifestyle, several companies have launched a wide variety of fresh dairy products packaged for extended shelf life.
First, innovations in processing technology have permitted the product to withstand the long-term storage and transportation. Appropriate treatments have been devised to keep the product safe for human consumption while preserving its sensory characteristics of flavour, texture, colour and appearance as well as retaining its freshness. Secondly, developments in packaging have also facilitated widespread marketing.

Water Activity (Pg 317)

Most preservation methodologies involve management of available water in foods to control microbial growth. Addition of salt in pickles and sugar in fruit jams is designed to impart osmotic pressure in the food system to retard microbial activity. Addition of fruit acid or vinegar reduces the pH to effect selectivity in microbial growth.

Due to manipulation of the moisture content, canned sweetened milk can be stored at ambient temperatures for several months and, at times, years.
Indian milk products have generally high water activity because of which they have short shelf life.

Wherever feasible, reduced water activity can also be attained by adding salt, sugars (preferably monosaccharides like glucose and fructose), proteins, and starch and corn syrup solids.

Section 5.1: Process and Product Development Techniques

Figure 4.1.1 Western technologies adaptable for Indian milk products. (PG 231)

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Production Process Modernization
"A first of its kind, this handbook records India's experience in mechanizing and modernizing the production of traditional dairy products".
- Khaleej Times, Dubai, UAE
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