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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products
would be of interest to Nutritionists and Health Personnel.


Section 6.1: Nutritional and Health Attributes

Nutrition and Health Attributes (Pg 349)

The dietary allowances of various nutrients as recommended by the United States National Research Council include fat intake as per the following break-up: up to 30 per cent calories from total fat (65 g/day), 10 per cent calories from saturated fat (20 g/day) and 300 mg of cholesterol/day. Sodium intake is recommended to be up to 2,400 mg/day, while potassium intake should not be more than 3,500 mg/day. Carbohydrates, especially complex carbohydrates, should provide 50-60 per cent calories, which is equivalent to carbohydrate intake of 300 g/day. Protein should supply 10-15 per cent calories (equivalent to protein intake of 50 g/day). Calcium intake should be at least 1,000 mg/day.


Nutritional Profile (Pg 349)

The combination of lysine-rich milk protein with lysine-deficient cereal protein has a kind of synergistic effect that imparts a high nutritional value to the mixed protein in the product.



Table 6.1.1
Nutritional composition of milk per 100 g (Pg 350)

Nutrient
Type of Milk
 
Cow
Buffalo
Goat
Human
Water, g
87.99
83.39
87.03
87.50
Food energy, kcal
61.44
96.62
68.81
69.56
KJ (kilojoules)
257
404
288
291
Protein (N ´ 6.38), g
3.29
3.75
3.56
1.03
Fat, g
3.34
6.89
4.14
4.38
Carbohydrate, total, g
4.66
5.18
4.45
6.89
Fibre, g
0
0
0
0
Ash, g
0.72
0.79
0.82
0.20
Minerals
Calcium, mg
119.4
169.0
133.5
32.2
Iron, mg
0.05
0.12
0.05
0.03
Magnesium, mg
13.44
31.12
13.97
3.40
Phosphorus, mg
93.40
117.40
110.70
13.70
Potassium, mg
151.5
177.7
204.4
51.2
Sodium, mg
49.0
52.2
49.8
16.9
Zinc, mg
0.38
0.22
0.30
0.17
Vitamins
Ascorbic Acid, mg
0.94
2.25
1.29
5.00
Thiamin, mg
0.038
0.052
0.048
0.014
Riboflavin, mg
0.162
0.135
0.138
0.036
Niacin, mg
0.084
0.091
0.277
0.177
Pantothenic Acid, mg
0.314
0.192
0.310
0.223
Vitamin B6, mg
0.042
0.023
0.046
0.011
Folate, µg
5.0
5.6
0.6
5.2
Vitamin B12, µg
0.357
0.363
0.065
0.045
Vitamin A, RE
31
53
56
64
Vitamin A, IU
126
178
185
241
Cholesterol, mg
14
19
11
14


Milk Proteins (Pg 350-351)

The nutritional quality of a protein depends on the biological efficiency of absorption of its building blocks, called amino acids. Besides, the pattern and level of essential amino acids.

Compared to plant proteins, dairy proteins provide highest quality and absorption characteristics. In other words, when milk proteins are included in our diet, our protein requirement for amino acid nutrition is much lower.

Casein and whey proteins of milk products complement each other in the quantitative distribution of amino acids.


Biological Activity (Pg 351, 355)

Casein micelles perform the role of mineral (calcium and phosphate) carrier. In mammary gland, casein guards against calcification by controlling precipitation of calcium phosphate. Whey proteins offer protection against tumor incidence.
Colostrum stimulates the immune system by enhancing the activity of natural killer cells and phagocytes.

Lactoferrin has a role in non-specific defence of the host against invading pathogens.

Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme, oxidizes thiocyanate (SCN) to a number of shortlived anti-bacterial components (hypothiocyanate, cyanosulphurous acid and cyanosulphuric acid) through the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.


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