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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to people associated with Product Packaging Organizations (Including Research and Training).
Section 3.1 - Desiccated Milk-based Products

Packaging of Khoa (Pg 104-105)

Aseptic packaging of khoa in radiation sterilized laminated pouches extended its shelf life to 7-22 days as against 1-3 days for unpacked samples when stored at 37°C. The use of radiation-sterilized packages did not impart any additional shelf stability to khoa. Similar results were also observed with the use of unsterilized pouches, indicating insignificant microbial contamination of the product from the packaging material. The shelf life of the product remains unaffected in vacuum packaging.

Recommended packaging: Films capable of forming a good barrier against moisture loss and oxygen permeation are recommended for khoa packaging.

Section 4.2 - Packaging

Packaging (Pg 293)

The four most important aspects of packaging are: Presentation (graphics and material), cost, consumer friendliness (easy-to-open and use), and effect on environment. The growing sophistication in marketing trends calls for consumer convenience in product buying and use.

Paper Carton Boards (Pg 295)

Cost-wise, cartons are cheapest amongst all the packaging materials. They are printable for labelling purpose and are environment-friendly. However, these are not pilfer-proof and can be easily unsealed. Further, cartons also have a poor moisture barrier property. To overcome these deficiencies, cartons with plastic inner and outer liners or PE-lined papers have been developed and are widely used.

Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) (Pg 301)

Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP), also called Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP), is a process in which the normal atmosphere air inside the sealed package is replaced by a known gas or a mixture of gases.

The principal factors for a successful MAP operation are the choice of gas/gases and its effect on the product, and the use of a suitable packaging material and machine. MAP should be applied after ascertaining physico-chemical characteristics of the product and problems likely to occur during its storage period.

Indian Standards for Packaging of Milk and Milk Products (Pg 302)

Metallic Packaging

  • IS 8221:1976 Code of practice for corrosion prevention of metals and metal components in packages, Reaffirmed 1990

Tin Packaging

  • IS 4079:1967 Canned Rasogolla
  • IS 9991:1981 Condensed milk cans, Reaffirmed 1992
  • IS 10339:1988 Ghee, Vanaspati and edible oil tins (1st revision)
    (Amendment 1) Reaffirmed 1994

Aluminium Foil Packaging

  • IS 891:1978 Paper aluminium foil laminates for general packaging. Reaffirmed 1989
  • IS 8970:1991 Aluminium foil laminates for packaging (1st revision)

Aluminium Bottles

  • IS 3603:1988 Seamless aluminium bottles (1st revision)

Plastic Film Packaging

  • IS 7019:1998 Glossary of terms in plastics and flexible packaging, excluding paper (2nd rev)
  • IS 10171:1987 Guide on suitability of plastics for food packaging

Polyethylene/Flexible Packaging

  • IS 11824:1986 Paper coated high density polyethylene woven sacks for packing skim milk powder
  • IS 14129:1994 Flexible packaging materials for packing of Vanaspati in 10 kg & 15 kg packs
  • IS 10840:1994 Blow moulded HDPE containers for packing of Vanaspati-specifications
  • IS 11352:1994 Flexible packaging materials for packing of Vanaspati in 100 gm, 200 gm, 500 gm, 1 kg, 2 kg, & 5 kg packs

Paper/Fibreboard Packaging

  • IS 3263:1981 Waxed paper for confectionery (1st revision). Reaffirmed 1998
  • IS 3962:1976 Waxed paper for general packaging (Amendment 1) Reaffirmed 1996
  • IS 4261:1967 Glossary of terms relating to paper & pulp based packaging materials (Amendments 2)
  • IS 7162:1973 Waxed cartons for packing Ice cream, Reaffirmed 1993
  • IS 7186:1973 Glossary of terms relating to paper & flexible packaging
  • IS 9313:1979 Corrugated fibreboard boxes for export packaging of glass jars & bottles filled with processed foods
  • IS 9988:1981 Waxed paper for bread & biscuit, Reaffirmed 1993
  • IS 10177:1982 Ice cream cups & lids, Reaffirmed 1993
  • IS 12212:1987 Corrugated fibreboard boxes for transport packaging of butter packed in primary carton

Glass Bottles

  • IS 1392:1983 Glass milk bottles (3rd revision). Reaffirmed 1988
  • IS 6654:1992 Glass containers: Glossary of terms (2nd revision). Reaffirmed 1998

Milk Bottle Crates

  • IS 1613:1960 Milk bottle crates (Amendment 1)

General Packaging Code

  • IS 10106(Part-I/Sec 2):1990 Packaging code: Part I Product packaging, Sec 1 Foodstuffs & perishables

Some guidelines for use of plastic materials have also been published:

  • IS 2798:1998 Methods of test for plastic containers (1st revision)
  • IS 8747:1997 Methods of test for environmental stress-crack resistance of blow-moulded polyethylene containers
  • IS 9883:1981 List of pigments and colorants for use in plastics in contact with foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals and drinking water
  • IS 10171:1987 Guide on suitability of plastics for food packaging

Section 5.1 - Process and Product Development Techniques

Packaging Techniques (Pg 319)

The main function of packaging is to protect the product from physical damage and environmental changes during transit. While choosing the packaging material, check its suitability for the desired shelf life of the product. The packaging material should also prevent deterioration of the product quality as a result of exposure to sunlight. Make the package and its graphics attractive for the consumer and provide nutritional information, code date for its use and recipes to enlarge the use of the product. The consumer should find the package easy to handle and convenient to store.

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