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The following extracts from the handbook Technology of Indian Milk Products would be of interest to Rural Development Professionals.

Section 4.1 - Production Planning and Implementation

Production Planning and Implementation (Pg 217 - 218)

The feasibility study is essential for implementation of such a project. It should cover capital investment on land, building, equipment, infrastructure, working capital, manufacturing and marketing cost, and financial projections to work out the viability of the project. Once its viability is established, a detailed project report should include the following ten steps for project planning and implementation:

First Step: Appoint a consultant to plan the project in relation to the proposed market, design the dairy plant, and select an architect and a structural consultant. Prepare tender documents for civil works and plant equipment.

Second Step: After quantifying the product mix, work out the process flow diagram showing the material balances.

Third Step:
Formulate dairy plant specifications. The proposed design should include:

  • Space required (Floor Area).
  • List the equipment, their specifications and capacities.
  • Prepare the plant layout, including process, service and storage.
  • Provide for service requirements…

Fourth Step: Prepare for plant construction by attending to the following:

  • Selection of the site;
  • Survey the availability of essential services like water, electricity, all-weather road, communications, etc; and,
  • Tender for civil works, equipment supply and installation, and the subsequent award of contracts.

Fifth Step: Formulate the marketing plans for design of brand name, logo, packaging, procurement of packaging and labelling materials. Appointment of core staff, including plant manager, administration and marketing personnel.

Sixth Step: Arrange for sanctions/approvals/clearances by the Central/State/local statutory authorities.

Seventh Step: Coordinate the civil construction work with the suppliers for timely installation of the dairy equipment and machinery.

Eighth Step: Complete the civil construction to the stage when equipment can be installed.

Ninth Step: Select and appoint supervisors and the operating staff. Erection, installation and commissioning of the plant and machinery.

Tenth Step: Place the products in the market through well-established marketing channels.

The techno-economic feasibility study is presented in four parts:
Part I: Investment opportunities;
Part II: Plan for product manufacturing;
Part III: Development of plant layout; and,
Part IV: Cleaning and sanitization.

Section 1.1: Modernization Opens Global Markets

Table 1.1.5 Volume and value of market for traditional milk products, 2001 (Pg 8)

(million tonnes)
(Rs '000/tonne)
(Rs billion)

Khoa-based sweets
Chhana-based sweets
Curd & curd products
578 ($11.5 billion)

Market: National and Global (Pg 15)

A major market for Indian milk-based sweets is developing overseas. In North America alone, this market is estimated at US $500 million. Some 20 million Indians, over half of them living in the West, are part of the upper income group. The highly successful Indian community is reported to have an annual income of US $300 billion-almost three times India's GDP.

The Indian diaspora presents an exciting avenue for globalization of mithais. Entrepreneurs in Europe, North America and Australia are looking into the prospects of manufacturing them, as is evident from an increasing number of enquiries received in India for equipment to manufacture paneer, khoa, shrikhand, gulabjamun, etc. A Canadian initiative, IDP Foods, Inc, to produce Indian milk products in North America, has gone on stream in June 2002. It is the largest attempt outside India to make ethnic Indian dairy products on an industrial scale.

Indian mithais have good commercial market in developed countries where the share of food in the overall household expenditure is small.

Section 1.2 - Market Survey and Analysis

India: World's Largest Dairy Market (Pg 32)

India today is the world’s largest and fastest growing market for milk and milk products. With an annual growth rate of about 4.5 per cent, the country’s milk production, mostly rural-based, exceeded 230 million litres per day (84.6 million tonnes per year) in 2001.

Some 70 million farmers maintaining a milch herd of about 100 million — 54 million cows and 42 million buffaloes, fed largely on crop residues. They account for 97 per cent of all milk produced in India.

Operation Flood (1970–1996) has modernized India’s dairy sector. In 2002, over 30 dairy plants have been awarded the ISO:9000 and HACCP certification, and their number is increasing.

Marketing: The indigenous dairy products account for 50 per cent of milk utilization. Significant headway has been made in the industrial production of traditional sweets such as shrikhand, gulabjamun, peda and burfi.

The bulk of the demand for milk, however, is in urban areas, amounting to some 125 million lpd, accounting for more than 80 per cent of traded milk.

Presently, the modern milk distribution network supplies hygienically-packed, quality pasteurized milk to about 1,000 cities and towns. This number could go up by almost five times in the foreseeable future. According to one estimate, the packed, pasteurized, liquid milk segment, presently estimated at 15 million lpd, would double in the next five years, giving both strength and volume to the modern sector.

New emerging dairy markets will focus on:
(a) Food service institutional market
(b) Defence market
(c) Ingredients market
(d) Parlour market

Section 4.1 - Production Planning and Implementation

Figure 4.1.6 Mass Balance for production of asteurized/ultrapasteurized lassi
(Pg 242)

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